achille e patroclo

In the Iliad, Homer describes a deep and meaningful relationship between Achilles and Patroclus, where Achilles is tender toward Patroclus but callous and arrogant toward others. Shay points out that a frequent topos in veterans' grief for a companion is that companion's gentleness or innocence; similarly, while a warrior of great note, Patroclus is said in the Iliad by other soldiers and by Briseis the captive to have been gentle and kind. Aristarchus of Samothrace, who has been called “the founder of scientific scholarship,” believed Homer did not intend to present Achilles and Patroclus as lovers. Homer never explicitly casts the two as lovers[1][2] but they were depicted as lovers in the archaic and classical periods of Greek literature, particularly in the works of Aeschylus, Aeschines and Plato.[3][4]. The Resource Achille e Patroclo Label Achille e Patroclo Language Italian Version Libretto. [25] (In the Iliad, it is explicitly stated that Patroclus was the older and more responsible of the two.). ὃ δέ τ' ἄχνυται ὕστερος ἐλθών», «e Achille tra loro diede inizio al compianto,mettendo le mani sterminatrici sul petto del suo compagno,e gemendo sempre, come un leone dalla bella crinieraal quale un cacciatore ha rapito i cucciolinella selva fitta, e lui si angoscia d'esser giunto tardi». Due to his anger at being dishonored by Agamemnon, Achilles chooses not to participate in the battle. He argues that while a modern reader is inclined to interpret the portrayal of these intense same-sex male warrior friendships as being fundamentally homoerotic, it is important to consider the greater themes of these relationships: The thematic insistence on mutuality and the merging of individual identities, although it may invoke in the minds of modern readers the formulas of heterosexual romantic love […] in fact situates avowals of reciprocal love between male friends in an honorable, even glamorous tradition of heroic comradeship: precisely by banishing any hint of subordination on the part of one friend to the other, and thus any suggestion of hierarchy, the emphasis on the fusion of two souls into one actually distances such a love from erotic passion. But most modern editors have accepted the lines, and other passages show emotions that at least approximate them. Elizabeth Cook's 2001 verse novel, Achilles, is not sexually explicit, but a romantic relationship can be inferred. He laments Patroclus’ death using language very similar to that later used by Andromache of Hector. [8] Xenophon cites other examples of legendary comrades, such as Orestes and Pylades, who were renowned for their joint achievements rather than any erotic relationship. Platone presenta attorno al 385 a.C. i due come amanti nel Simposio: il giovane Fedro li indica qual esempio di amanti divinamente approvati. The earlier steadfast and unbreakable Achilles agonizes, touching Patroclus’ dead body, smearing himself with ash and fasting. 1 Leben 2 Beziehung zwischen Achilles und Patroklos 3 Rezeption The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1993, p. 6. [senza fonte] Teti ha difatti spinto il figlio a tornare sul campo di battaglia e qui egli, con l'unico scopo di vendicare Patroclo, si aggira assetato di sangue alla ricerca del suo assassino: Ettore comprende molto presto di non aver alcuna possibilità di sopravvivere allo scontro con l'eroe furente. Sergent asserts that ritualized man-boy relations were widely diffused through Europe from prehistoric times. The joint tomb and Alexander's action demonstrates the perceived significance of the Achilles-Patroclus relationship at that time (around 334 BC). In Christa Wolf's novel Cassandra, Achilles is depicted as a somewhat conflicted homosexual male, one who would go after both a young man, whom he actually desired, and a young woman, to prove he was like everyone else. She writes of Achilles, "He also knows the body of his cousin Patroclus." Further evidence of this debate is found in a speech by an Athenian politician, Aeschines, at his trial in 345 BC. Il rapporto tra Achille e Patroclo è uno degli elementi chiave dei miti associati alla guerra di Troia: quale sia stata la sua effettiva natura e fino a che punto si sia spinta questa relazione tra i due eroi è stata oggetto di controversie sia nel periodo antico sia nei tempi moderni. [18], When Alexander the Great and his intimate friend Hephaestion passed through the city of Troy on their Asian campaign, Alexander honoured the sacred tomb of Achilles and Patroclus in front of the entire army, and this was taken as a clear declaration of their own friendship. 1 Items in the Collection Achille e Patroclo. He returns to battle with the sole aim of avenging Patroclus’ death by killing Hector, despite a warning that doing so would cost him his life. Nella tragedia perduta di Eschilo Mirmidoni il poeta indica la relazione tra i due eroi come esplicitamente sessuale ed assegna ad Achille il titolo di erastes e protettore: in un frammento superstite l'eroe parla di una "unione devota delle cosce"[4] indicando il sesso intercrurale, quello utilizzato maggiormente nelle relazioni pederastiche. In Ilium, by Dan Simmons, Achilles and Patroclus share a close "brothers in war" type bond, but are also shown to engage in group sex, each with a woman and possibly each other. Achilles calls Patroclus the only one he ever loved and Patroclus is depicted as jealous of Achilles' relationship to Briseis. As the tide of the war turns against the Achaeans, Patroclus convinces Achilles to let him lead the Myrmidon army into battle wearing Achilles’ armor. Ciononostante, il rapporto tra Achille e Patroclo rappresenta uno dei nodi principali all'interno della stessa trama dell'Iliade: è la morte di Patroclo, vestito con le armi del semidio, l'unico evento capace di smuovere Achille che, sin dall'inizio del poema, era irato per il furto della schiava Briseide e aveva deciso di non combattere per gli Achei Eppure Achille sa anche piangere infatti lo fa per Patroclo e ciò evidenzia la … [8] The Greek custom of paiderasteia between members of the same-sex, typically men, was a political, intellectual, and sometimes sexual relationship. Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. [9] Its ideal structure consisted of an older erastes (lover, protector), and a younger eromenos (the beloved). In the 5th and 4th centuries BC, the relationship was portrayed as same-sex love in the works of Aeschylus, Plato, Pindar and Aeschines. In molti tra i romanzi storici dell'autrice britannica Mary Renault sono contenuti frequenti riferimenti simbolici ad Achille e Patroclo: la coppia per lei rappresenta un modello di amore pederastico senza alcuna implicazione di effeminatezza, bensì un ideale amore cameratesco omosessuale. Pat Barker's "The Silence of the Girls" (2018) depicts the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus as nuanced, describing their close bond as stated in the Iliad but leaving the rest for inference. Hetaîros meant companion or comrade; in Homer it is usually used of soldiers under the same commander. Il film Troy presenta Patroclo come un parente più giovane di Achille, deprivando la storia d'un qualsiasi aspetto romantico o sessuale; laddove invece Omero afferma chiaramente che Patroclo era il più grande di età tra i due, oltre ad esser quello col carattere più responsabile. Nel romanzo di fantascienza di Dan Simmons intitolato Ilium Achille e Patroclo hanno un forte legame di fratellanza guerriera, ma vengono mostrati anche impegnarsi in un'orgia. Embed this data in a secure (HTTPS) page: http://link.archive.org/resource/tYGbD7LwkiQ/, http://library.link/resource/tYGbD7LwkiQ/, http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, Creative Di molto successivo al testo omerico lo Pseudo-Apollodoro (Biblioteca, libro III, 13, 8) e Publio Papinio Stazio (poeta latino del I secolo) nella sua Achilleide ci mostrano l'eroe (mentre si nasconde travestito da donna a Sciro perché la madre vuole impedirgli di partecipare alla guerra) come marito di Deidamia e padre di Neottolemo: quest'ultimo avrebbe anche preso parte alle fasi finali della guerra di Troia, giovanissimo, dopo la morte del padre (cfr. The musical Spring Awakening, includes an offhand reference where one boy, Hanschen, entreats another, Ernst to 'do a little Achilles and Patroclus'. News of Patroclus’ death reaches Achilles through Antilochus, which throws him into deep grief. Patroklos (altgriechisch Πάτροκλος „Ruhm des Vaters“, lateinisch Patroclus) ist in der griechischen Mythologie einer der griechischen Kämpfer vor Troja, Sohn des Menoitios und der Sthenele, der Freund und Waffengefährte des Achilleus. The rage that follows from Patroclus’ death becomes the prime motivation for Achilles to return to the battlefield. Aristarchus’ view, of course, is paradoxical: even a Greek who wanted to rule out an amorous interpretation of the men’s relationship thought these lines argued against such a view.», "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities", Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, Achilles: Paradigms of the War Hero from Homer to the Middle Ages, Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World, Omosessualità militare nella Grecia antica, Storia dell'omosessualità nel mondo antico, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Achille_e_Patroclo&oldid=115511841, Voci con modulo citazione e parametro pagina, Voci con modulo citazione e parametro pagine, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo. William Shakespeare's play Troilus and Cressida portrays Achilles and Patroclus as lovers in the eyes of the Greeks. L'azione compiuta da Alessandro dimostra poi l'importanza percepita al tempo del rapporto esistente tra i due eroi[6][7]. A futuristic version of Patroclus appears in the 1997 science fiction story The Masque of Agamemnon by Sean Williams and Simon Brown. The relationship is intensely intimate, and certainly exceeds the common bounds of friendship. "[10] Most ancient writers (among the most influential Aeschylus, Plutarch, Theocritus, Martial and Lucian)[4] followed the thinking laid out by Aeschines. [23] Achilles' decision to spend his days in his tent with Patroclus is seen by Ulysses and many other Greeks as the chief reason for anxiety about Troy.[24]. [15][16] Instead, Phaedrus suggests that Achilles is the eromenos whose reverence of his erastes, Patroclus, was so great that he would be willing to die to avenge him.[16]. David Malouf's novel, Ransom (2009), is a reconsideration of the Iliad, and among others, depicts the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus as intense and intimate. Nella mitologia classica vi sono comunque altre coppie di guerrieri che volentieri affrontano il pericolo e finanche la morte l'uno stretto accanto all'altro, come Eurialo e Niso (Virgilio, Eneide, V e IX), Oreste e Pilade (Eschilo, Orestea), Ati e Licabas (Ovidio, Metamorfosi, V): in particolare Ati e Achille sono semidei, nati ambedue da ninfe. Alcuni tentativi di rivedere il testo di Omero furono intrapresi da Aristarco di Samotracia intorno al 200 a.C.[8] sostenendo che il sommo poeta non intendeva indicare i due come amanti, ma che ciò è stata solo un'interpolazione successiva[9]. Nel romanzo di Christa Wolf intitolato Cassandra Achille è presentato come un maschio omosessuale che si trova ad essere in un certo qual modo in conflitto con sé stesso. Post-classical and modern interpretations, W. M. Clarke, "Achilles and Patroclus in Love," in, William Armstrong Percy III, "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities," in. In a surviving fragment of the play, Achilles speaks of “the reverent company” of Patroclus’ thighs and how Patroclus was “ungrateful for many kisses.”[12][13], Pindar's comparison of the adolescent boxer Hagesidamus and his trainer Ilas to Patroclus and Achilles in Olympian 10.16-21 (476 BC) as well as the comparison of Hagesidamus to Zeus' lover Ganymede in Olympian 10.99-105 suggest that student and trainer had a romantic relationship, especially after Aeschylus' depiction of Achilles and Patroclus as lovers in his play Myrmidons. .mw-parser-output .chiarimento{background:#ffeaea;color:#444444}.mw-parser-output .chiarimento-apice{color:red}Il linguaggio dei lamenti di Achille sarà molto simile a quello usato poi da Andromaca davanti al cadavere del marito Ettore, ucciso proprio da Achille. Madeline Miller's The Song of Achilles (2011) is a coming-of-age story told from Patroclus' point of view, showing the development of a loving and sexual relationship between Achilles and Patroclus.[26]. L'attaccamento di Achille e Patroclo divenne subito un legame archetipico maschile per molte coppie di uomini nella cultura greca: da Damone e Pizia fino ad Armodio e Aristogitone.[3]. Autore Il suo scopo era screditarlo e privarlo dei diritti civili, pena riservata This can explain the overtones in Book 19 of the Iliad wherein Achilles mourns Patroclus (lines 315–337) in a similar manner used previously by Briseis (lines 287–300).[8]. While its feminine form (hetaîra) would be used for courtesans, a hetaîros was still a form of soldier in Hellenistic and Byzantine times. [19][20], Commentators from the Classical period on have interpreted the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. Torna a combattere, anche se gli Dèi lo avevano ben preavvertito che ciò gli sarebbe costato a sua volta la vita. Achilles' attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion who made symbolic public references to Achilles and Patroclus, Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogeiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other.[6]. Nel romanzo di Madeline Miller La canzone di Achille viene mostrato il rapporto d'amore tra Achille e Patroclo dagli inizi fino alla morte di Achille. In Athens, the relationship was often viewed as being loving and pederastic. In fact Patroklos is for Achilles the πολὺ φίλτατος ... ἑταῖρος — the ‘hetaîros who is the most phílos by far’ (XVII 411, 655).[5]. As a rule, the post-classical tradition shows Achilles as heterosexual and having an exemplary platonic friendship with Patroclus. Aristarchus believed that Homer did not intend the two to be lovers. [17] However, Sergent and others have argued that it had, though it was not reflected in Homer. Since, however, he thought the “we-two alone” passage did imply a love relation, he argued that it must be a later interpolation. Phaedrus argues that Aeschylus erred in claiming Achilles was the erastes because Achilles was more beautiful and youthful than Patroclus (characteristics of the eromenos) as well as more noble and skilled in battle (characteristics of the erastes). The novels of Mary Renault contain frequent symbolic references to Achilles and Patroclus; the pair represents a model for the non-effeminate, comradely homosexual love that was her ideal. Gli scrittori medioevali cristiani hanno deliberatamente soppresso le sfumature omoerotiche della storia[11]. Nel musical Spring Awakening ad un certo punto un ragazzo implora un altro di fare un po' di Achille e Patroclo: i due personaggi sono poi mostrati impegnarsi in una relazione omosessuale. Patroclus succeeds in beating back the Trojan forces, but is killed in battle by Hector. Medieval Christian writers deliberately suppressed the homoerotic nuances of the figure.[21]. [14], In Plato’s Symposium, written c. 385 BC, the speaker Phaedrus holds up Achilles and Patroclus as an example of divinely approved lovers. Aeschines, in placing an emphasis on the importance of paiderasteia to the Greeks, argues that though Homer does not state it explicitly, educated people should be able to read between the lines: "Although (Homer) speaks in many places of Patroclus and Achilles, he hides their love and avoids giving a name to their friendship, thinking that the exceeding greatness of their affection is manifest to such of his hearers as are educated men. Jonathan Shay, whose book Achilles in Vietnam proposes readings of the Iliad that have been helpful and therapeutically useful for the healing of mental wounds in Vietnam veterans, pointed out that their familial relationship in the Iliad must not be overlooked: Patroclus is Achilles' cousin and his foster brother; symbolically, comrades in battle are "like brothers," making the Achilles/Patroclus model useful for thinking about the intensity of Vietnam veterans' feelings of loss when their comrades fell beside them. William Shakespeare in Troilo e Cressida raffigura i due eroi come amanti, con la decisione di Achille di trascorrere tutto il tempo all'interno della tenda dell'amico. [10] Writers that assumed a pederastic relationship between Achilles and Patroclus, such as Plato and Aeschylus, were then faced with a problem of deciding who must be older and play the role of the erastes. Byrne Fone's 2008 novel Achilles: A Love Story portrays Achilles and Patroclus as lovers. However, he did agree that the "we-two alone" passage did imply a love relation and argued it was a later interpolation. Egli sostiene inoltre che Eschilo ha commesso un errore nell'indicare Achille quale erastes in quanto era proprio l'eroe dall'ira facile il più giovane (difatti era ancora imberbe) e colui che eccelleva in bellezza. He later forms a relationship with Patroclus' reincarnation, Patrick Cleese. "Homosexuality & Civilization" by Louis Crompton. Patroclus is briefly mentioned as the sole man who could get Achilles to feel truly passionate about defeating Troy, and upon his death Achilles butchered several Troy captives — including two royal children — as a sacrifice. In the Oxford Classical Dictionary, David M. Halperin writes, Homer, to be sure, does not portray Achilles and Patroclus as lovers (although some Classical Athenians thought he implied as much (Aeschylus fragments 135, 136 Radt; Plato Symposium 179e–180b; Aeschines Against Timarchus 133, 141–50) ), but he also did little to rule out such an interpretation.[7]. Come regola generale la tradizione post-classica mostra un Achille perfettamente eterosessuale avere un'esemplare amicizia del tutto asessuata con Patroclo. At the beginning of the novel, when Odysseus visits Achilles in the underworld, "He stands apart with Patroclus, his beloved through all eternity, and Patroclus — who loves Achilles, but not so much as he is loved — waits for Achilles to move," an allusion to Iliad Book 9, when the embassy of Greek leaders find Achilles playing the lyre and singing, while Patroclus waits for his friend to end his song. Achilles is the most dominant, and among the warriors in the Trojan War he has the most fame. Durante il V e il IV secolo a.C. la relazione tra Achille e Patroclo è stata ritratta sempre più come un rapporto pederastico tra eromenos ed erastès (questo ce lo dice Eschilo nella sua trilogia dedicata ad Achille e pervenutaci frammentata), anche se questi ruoli risultano a ben vedere anacronistici ed invertiti, così come è invertito il rapporto d'età[senza fonte]: Achille, il più giovane, risulta dominante avendo maggior fama di guerriero (questo fa sostenere Platone a Fedro nel Simposio); mentre Patroclo, il più adulto, svolge ruoli di servizio come occuparsi della cucina o prendersi cura dei cavalli. Quando Alessandro Magno giunse sulla piana di Troia assieme al suo amante Efestione nel 334 a.C., all'inizio della grande campagna asiatica che li avrebbe portati di lì a poco fino ai confini del mondo conosciuto, l'India, andarono ad onorare il sacro tumulo innalzato a perenne memoria di Achille e Patroclo: questo di fronte a tutto l'esercito schierato, e dunque si trattò di un'esplicita dichiarazione sulla natura del loro legame. A version of Achilles in DC Comics depicts a modern-day resurrected Achilles as Wonder Woman's male counterpart, who is gay. Both characters also sleep with women; see Iliad, IX.663–669. According to William A. Percy III, there are some scholars, such as Bernard Sergent, who believe that in Homer's Ionian culture there existed a homosexuality that had not taken on the form it later would in pederasty. Emily Hauser's "For the Most Beautiful" touches upon the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus. Achilles and Patroclus are close comrades in the fight against the Trojans. [citation needed], Attempts to edit Homer's text were undertaken by Aristarchus of Samothrace in Alexandria around 200 BC. [16] Notably, in Xenophon's Symposium, the host Kallias and the young pankration victor Autolycos are called erastes and eromenos. Achilles' attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion who made symbolic public references to Achilles and Patroclus, Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogeiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other. The two characters are later shown engaging in a homosexual relationship. Patroclus performs duties such as cooking, feeding and grooming the horses, yet is older than Achilles. The collection Achille e Patroclo represents a specific aggregation or gathering of resources found in Internet Archive - Open Library. Achilles publicly laments Patroclus’ death, addressing the corpse and criticizing him for letting himself be killed. Alcuni versi di Licofrone di Alessandria d'Egitto, autore del III secolo, sembrano indicare qual movente dell'uccisione di Troilo da parte di Achille, proprio un amore non corrisposto. David Halperin nel suo saggio intitolato Gli eroi e i loro amici mette a confronto le tradizioni di Gilgamesh con Enkidu e Davide con Gionatan, le quali son quasi contemporanee alla composizione dell'Iliade e sostiene che mentre nessuno di questi tre rapporti sia indicato come esplicitamente sessuale all'interno del contesto letterario e sociale in cui si sono venute a creare, tutte d'altra parte dimostrano inequivocabilmente quanto intensamente omoerotiche fossero le amicizie guerriere tra maschi[12]. David Halperin compares Achilles and Patroclus to the traditions of Jonathan and David, and Gilgamesh and Enkidu, which are approximately contemporary with the Iliad's composition. [11], Aeschylus, in his lost tragedy The Myrmidons (5th century BC), assigned Achilles the role of erastes or protector, (since he had avenged his lover’s death, even though the gods told him it would cost him his own life), and assigned Patroclus the roles of eromenos. The relationship between Achilles and Patroclus is a key element of the stories associated with the Trojan War. , This resource is rare in the Library.Link network, Click the 'Query Network' button to show other libraries in the Library.Link network that share this resource, La morte di Patroclo; : dramma serio, da rappresentarsi nel Teatro Carcano, l'estate dell'anno 1819.

Olio 31 Just, 18 Agosto Cosa Si Festeggia, Teatro Romano Aosta, Nappino, Santa Brigida, Quanta Farina Per Una Pizza, Mappa Concettuale: Cristianesimo, Dorso Del Piede,