maya nome arabo

[64] He thereafter served as a loyal ally of Calakmul. As a part of their religion, the Maya practised human sacrifice. [345], The Maya measured the 584-day Venus cycle with an error of just two hours. In the southern Yucatán and central Petén, kingdoms declined; in western Petén and some other areas, the changes were catastrophic and resulted in the rapid depopulation of cities. Palaces had multiple entrances that used post-and-lintel entrances rather than corbel vaulting. However, many Maya villages remained remote from Spanish colonial authority, and for the most part continued to manage their own affairs. Word lid van Facebook om met Maya Nome en anderen in contact te komen. [362], The Maya world was populated by a great variety of deities, supernatural entities and sacred forces. The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel[336] contains the only colonial reference to classic long-count dates. Lovell 2005, p. 58. [328] In a similar way to the tzʼolkin, the named winal would be prefixed by a number (from 0 to 19), in the case of the shorter wayeb period, the prefix numbers ran 0 to 4. It indicated an overlord, or high king, and the title was only in use during the Classic period. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 98. For ease of reference, epigraphers refer to glyph blocks from left to right alphabetically, and top to bottom numerically. [1] Today, the Maya peoples number well over 6 million people, speaking over twenty-eight surviving Mayan languages and residing in nearly the same area as their ancestors.[2]. [53] The Classic period Maya political landscape has been likened to that of Renaissance Italy or Classical Greece, with multiple city-states engaged in a complex network of alliances and enmities. These last two may be variations on the same title,[145] and Mark Zender has suggested that the holder of this title may have been the spokesman for the ruler. However, it was the Maya that developed the calendar to its maximum sophistication, recording lunar and solar cycles, eclipses and movements of planets with great accuracy. [306], Although Mayan text may be laid out in varying manners, generally it is arranged into double columns of glyph blocks. Drew 1999, p. 186. Fuente, Staines Cicero and Arellano Hernández 1999, pp. The overarching term "Maya" is a modern collective term that refers to the peoples of the region, however, the term was not used by the indigenous populations themselves since there never was a common sense of identity or political unity among the distinct populations. [368] The nine lords of the night each governed one of the underworld realms. [311] Scribal activity is identifiable in the archaeological record; Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I, king of Tikal, was interred with his paint pot. [124] Border settlements, usually located about halfway between neighbouring capitals, often switched allegiance over the course of their history, and at times acted independently. The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies lists over 250 museums in its Maya Museum database,[393] and the European Association of Mayanists lists just under 50 museums in Europe alone. The Maya also followed the movements of Jupiter, Mars and Mercury. [163], Trade was a key component of Maya society, and in the development of the Maya civilization. [381] Contemporary rainforest species composition has significantly higher abundance of species of economic value to ancient Maya in areas that were densely populated in pre-Columbian times,[382] and pollen records in lake sediments suggest that maize, manioc, sunflower seeds, cotton, and other crops have been cultivated in association with deforestation in Mesoamerica since at least 2500 BC. At the least severe end of the scale, the defeated polity would be obliged to pay tribute to the victor. Maya palaces consisted of a platform supporting a multiroom range structure. Five cycles of Venus equated to eight 365-day haab calendrical cycles, and this period was recorded in the codices. [355], Blood was viewed as a potent source of nourishment for the Maya deities, and the sacrifice of a living creature was a powerful blood offering. [30] Modern scholars regard these periods as arbitrary divisions of Maya chronology, rather than indicative of cultural evolution or decline. Zorich 2012, p. 29. Rice, Rice, Pugh and Sánchez Polo 2009, p. 129. Estrada-Belli 2011, p. 38. The new king had strong ties with central Petén and Teotihuacan. [220] Around the 10th century AD, metallurgy arrived in Mesoamerica from South America, and the Maya began to make small objects in gold, silver and copper. [260], The ballcourt is a distinctive pan-Mesoamerican form of architecture. [156] Although present in the Maya region during the Classic period, its use as a weapon of war was not favoured;[170] it did not become a common weapon until the Postclassic. [299] A Classic period sculpture from Copán, Honduras, depicts a scribe with an inkpot fashioned from a conch shell. Love 2007, pp. The 2020 report of the survey, in the journal Nature, suggests its use as a ceremonial observation of the winter and summer solstices, with associated festivities and social gatherings. Archaeology conducted at Maya sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed. [121] Within a polity, mid-ranking population centres would have played a key role in managing resources and internal conflict. Ajaw is usually translated as "lord" or "king". City centres also featured plazas, sacred ballcourts and buildings used for marketplaces and schools. Many sites erected stelae, but Palenque instead developed finely sculpted panelling to decorate its buildings. Demarest 2004, pp. [310] The Popul Vuh recounts the mythical creation of the world, the legend of the Hero Twins, and the history of the Postclassic Kʼicheʼ kingdom. [160] In other instances, the victors would seize the defeated rulers, their families, and patron gods. [4] The Mesoamerican area gave rise to a series of cultural developments that included complex societies, agriculture, cities, monumental architecture, writing, and calendrical systems. Blume 2011, p. 53. [43] By approximately 400 BC, early Maya rulers were raising stelae. [380] Indeed, evidence of these different agricultural systems persist today: raised fields connected by canals can be seen on aerial photographs. [346] For the Maya, the heliacal rising of Venus was associated with destruction and upheaval. [165] By the Postclassic, the native chronicles suggest that women occasionally fought in battle. The Archaic period, prior to 2000 BC, saw the first developments in agriculture and the earliest villages. [78], Although much reduced, a significant Maya presence remained into the Postclassic period after the abandonment of the major Classic period cities; the population was particularly concentrated near permanent water sources. The labour required to build such a city was immense, running into many millions of man-days. [322] The value of a numeral was determined by its position; as a numeral shifted upwards, its basic value multiplied by twenty. Kristan-Graham and Kowalski 2007, pp. [277] Linguistic analysis of reconstructed Proto-Mayan vocabulary suggests that the original Proto-Mayan homeland was in the western or northern Guatemalan Highlands, although the evidence is not conclusive. [275], The Usumacinta style developed in the hilly terrain of the Usumacinta drainage. Illustration of a Maya scribe on a Classic period vessel. [45] In the Late Preclassic Period, the enormous city of El Mirador grew to cover approximately 16 square kilometres (6.2 sq mi). Miller and Taube 1993, p. 170. [38] This period was characterised by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines. Officials are referred to as being "owned" by their sponsor, and this relationship continued even after the death of the sponsor. Some structures in Maya acropoleis supported roof combs. Thompson 1932, p. 449. Among the best preserved murals are a full-size series of Late Classic paintings at Bonampak. There were thirteen levels in the heavens and nine in the underworld, with the mortal world in between. [186] A 2007 study analysed soils from a modern Guatemalan market and compared the results with those obtained from analysis at a proposed ancient market at Chunchucmil. "Maya." The Maya civilization developed within the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers a region that spreads from northern Mexico southwards into Central America. [388] [216], Ceramics are the most commonly surviving type of Maya art. [153] Commoners paid taxes to the elite in the form of staple goods such as maize flour and game. The king was the supreme ruler and held a semi-divine status that made him the mediator between the mortal realm and that of the gods. [56] Major cities in the northern Yucatán Peninsula continued to be inhabited long after the cities of the southern lowlands ceased to raise monuments. [134] The lakam was only found in larger sites, and they appear to have been responsible for the taxation of local districts. [156] The rapid abandonment of Aguateca by its inhabitants has provided a rare opportunity to examine the remains of Maya weaponry in situ. Graffiti has been recorded at 51 Maya sites, particularly clustered in the Petén Basin and southern Campeche, and the Chenes region of northwestern Yucatán. One of the most distinctive features is the realistic representation of subjects as they appeared in life. At Joya de Cerén, a volcanic eruption preserved a record of foodstuffs stored in Maya homes, among them were chilies and tomatoes. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. Hieroglyphic writing was being used in the Maya region by the 3rd century BC. Fuente, Staines Cicero and Arellano Hernández 1999, p. 146. When Venus rose as the Morning Star, this was associated with the rebirth of the Maya Hero Twins. The Short Count is a count of 13 kʼatuns. [236], These complexes were usually located in the site core, beside a principal plaza. Some of the Petén sites are Dos Pilas, Seibal, and Uaxactún. Saturno, Stuart and Beltrán 2006, 1281–82. [383], The basic staples of the Maya diet were maize, beans, and squashes. 68, 74. [25], The littoral zone of Soconusco lies to the south of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas,[26] and consists of a narrow coastal plain and the foothills of the Sierra Madre. At Tikal, where a great quantity of graffiti has been recorded, the subject matter includes drawings of temples, people, deities, animals, banners, litters, and thrones. [173] Even the Spanish Conquest did not immediately terminate all Maya trading activity;[173] for example, the Contact period Manche Chʼol traded the prestige crops of cacao, annatto and vanilla into colonial Verapaz. [207], Flint, chert, and obsidian all served utilitarian purposes in Maya culture, but many pieces were finely crafted into forms that were never intended to be used as tools. Such worship was rare during the Classic period,[373] but by the Postclassic the feathered serpent had spread to both the Yucatán Peninsula and the Guatemalan Highlands. Foster 2002, p. 274. [230] Frequently causeways linked the centre to outlying areas of the city. [200] Stone sculpture also took other forms, such as the limestone relief panels at Palenque and Piedras Negras. [331] The wayeb was considered to be a dangerous time, when the barriers between the mortal and supernatural realms were broken, allowing malignant deities to cross over and interfere in human concerns. [202] The hieroglyphic stairway at Copán comprises the longest surviving Maya hieroglyphic text, and consists of 2,200 individual glyphs. Other media include the aforementioned codices, stucco façades, frescoes, wooden lintels, cave walls, and portable artefacts crafted from a variety of materials, including bone, shell, obsidian, and jade. [255] At El Mirador there are probably as many as 36 triadic structures. Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders. [344] Venus was closely associated with warfare, and the hieroglyph meaning "war" incorporated the glyph-element symbolizing the planet. [391] Important sites in Belize include Altun Ha, Caracol, and Xunantunich. [80] Unlike during previous cycles of contraction in the Maya region, abandoned lands were not quickly resettled in the Postclassic. This only served to exacerbate systemic problems. [291] A few pages survive from a fourth, the Grolier Codex, whose authenticity is disputed. [314] The bar-and-dot counting system that is the base of Maya numerals was in use in Mesoamerica by 1000 BC;[315] the Maya adopted it by the Late Preclassic, and added the symbol for zero. [351] Maya ritual included the use of hallucinogens for chilan, oracular priests. [180] The travelling of merchants into dangerous foreign territory was likened to a passage through the underworld; the patron deities of merchants were two underworld gods carrying backpacks. Early Maya script had appeared on the Pacific coast of Guatemala by the late 1st century AD, or early 2nd century. Traditional crafts such as weaving, ceramics, and basketry continued to be practised. [118], During the Late Preclassic, the Maya political system coalesced into a theopolitical form, where elite ideology justified the ruler's authority, and was reinforced by public display, ritual, and religion. [114], The capital of  Sak Tz’i’ (an Ancient Maya kingdom) now named Lacanja Tzeltal, was revealed by researchers led by associate anthropology professor Charles Golden and bioarchaeologist Andrew Scherer in the Chiapas in the backyard of a Mexican farmer in 2020. The sacrifice of an enemy king was the most prized, and such a sacrifice involved decapitation of the captive ruler in a ritual reenactment of the decapitation of the Maya maize god by the death gods. Maya cities tended to expand haphazardly, and the city centre would be occupied by ceremonial and administrative complexes, surrounded by an irregular sprawl of residential districts. [225], Maya cities were not formally planned, and were subject to irregular expansion, with the haphazard addition of palaces, temples and other buildings. [11], The territory of the Maya covered a third of Mesoamerica,[12] and the Maya were engaged in a dynamic relationship with neighbouring cultures that included the Olmecs, Mixtecs, Teotihuacan, the Aztecs, and others. [158], From as early as the Preclassic period, the ruler of a Maya polity was expected to be a distinguished war leader, and was depicted with trophy heads hanging from his belt. Maya kings frequently identified themselves with Kʼinich Ahau. Martin and Grube 2000, p. 135. [196], Maya stone sculpture emerged into the archaeological record as a fully developed tradition, suggesting that it may have evolved from a tradition of sculpting wood. In the Maya Lowlands two great rivals, the cities of Tikal and Calakmul, became powerful. D'Arcy Harrison 2003, p. 114. [337] The George Vaillant Correlation would shift all Maya dates 260 years later, and would greatly shorten the Postclassic period. [63] For the next two decades he fought loyally for his brother and overlord at Tikal. Roof combs were relatively uncommon at Puuc sites. Martin and Grube 2000, p. 17. Freidel, Schele and Parker 1993, pp. [245] E-Groups were a particular arrangement of temples that were relatively common in the Maya region;[246] they take their names from Group E at Uaxactun. [111], In the 1960s, the distinguished Mayanist J. Eric S. Thompson promoted the ideas that Maya cities were essentially vacant ceremonial centres serving a dispersed population in the forest, and that the Maya civilization was governed by peaceful astronomer-priests. 13 and 20, after all, are the key numbers of the tzolkʼin, so it is fitting that they should be incorporated into the Long Count at enormous temporal scales. In the Early Classic, an ajaw was the ruler of a city. It featured fully adorned façades on both the upper and lower sections of structures. [158], Commoners were illiterate; scribes were drawn from the elite. The principal sites in the Puuc region, after Uxmal, are Kabah, Labna, and Sayil. [361] In one ritual, the corpse would be skinned by assistant priests, except for the hands and feet, and the officiating priest would then dress himself in the skin of the sacrificial victim and perform a ritual dance symbolizing the rebirth of life. The Maya set the beginning of their calendar as the end of a previous cycle of bakʼtuns, equivalent to a day in 3114 BC. They consisted of a dominant structure flanked by two smaller inward-facing buildings, all mounted upon a single basal platform. [28], The history of Maya civilization is divided into three principal periods: the Preclassic, Classic, and Postclassic periods. [350] The earliest intermediaries between humans and the supernatural were shamans. This information was used for divination, so Maya astronomy was essentially for astrological purposes. Popenoe de Hatch and Schieber de Lavarreda 2001, p. 991. [58] A year later, Siyaj Kʼakʼ oversaw the installation of a new king, Yax Nuun Ahiin I. [164], There is some evidence from the Classic period that women provided supporting roles in war, but they did not act as military officers with the exception of those rare ruling queens. In other words, all piktuns except the present one contained 20 bakʼtuns, but the current one contains 33; all previous kalabtuns, the next place up, contained 20 piktuns, but the current kalabtun contains 33 of those. [273] Some buildings contained interior stairways that accessed different levels. They were seized by a Maya lord, and most were sacrificed, although two managed to escape. [20] Most of the peninsula is formed by a vast plain with few hills or mountains and a generally low coastline. [82] During the Late Postclassic, the Yucatán Peninsula was divided into a number of independent provinces that shared a common culture but varied in internal sociopolitical organization. The earliest temples were probably thatched huts built upon low platforms. They also had a dual day-night/life-death aspect. [75] By the 9th and 10th centuries, this resulted in collapse of this system of rulership. At various points during the Classic period, one or other of these powers would gain a strategic victory over its great rival, resulting in respective periods of florescence and decline. [370] It is one of the most outstanding works of indigenous literature in the Americas. [150] The range of commoners was broad; it consisted of everyone not of noble birth, and therefore included everyone from the poorest farmers to wealthy craftsmen and commoners appointed to bureaucratic positions. Correspondingly, they placed high value on apple-green jade, and other greenstones, associating them with the sun-god Kʼinich Ajau. [36] Scholars continue to discuss when this era of Maya civilization began. [97] This left only the Maya kingdoms of the Petén Basin independent. [266], Although Maya cities shared many common features, there was considerable variation in architectural style. These are known as the Madrid Codex, the Dresden Codex and the Paris Codex. [367] The four Chaacs were storm gods, controlling thunder, lightning, and the rains. Szymanski 2013, p. 35. C4 would be third block counting from the left, and the fourth block counting downwards. [107], The final two decades of the 19th century saw the birth of modern scientific archaeology in the Maya region, with the meticulous work of Alfred Maudslay and Teoberto Maler. Carmack 2001, pp. Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing dates to the Classic period and is contained in stone inscriptions from Maya sites, such as stelae, or on ceramics vessels. Foster 2002, p. 5. [273] Examples of Chenes sites include Dzibilnocac, Hochob, Santa Rosa Xtampak, and Tabasqueño. Military campaigns were launched for a variety of reasons, including the control of trade routes and tribute, raids to take captives, scaling up to the complete destruction of an enemy state. The rough form was laid out on a plain plaster base coating on the wall, and the three-dimensional form was built up using small stones. Maya Nome is on Facebook. The captured nobles and their families could be imprisoned, or sacrificed. The exteriors of most buildings were painted, either in one or multiple colours, or with imagery. [232] Volcanic tuff was used at Copán, and nearby Quiriguá employed sandstone. [120] Some polities engaged in a strategy of increasing administration, and filling administrative posts with loyal supporters rather than blood relatives. [367] Other important deities included the moon goddess, the maize god, and the Hero Twins. Martin and Grube 2000, p. 178. [60] Its Classic-period dynasty was founded in 426 by Kʼinich Yax Kʼukʼ Moʼ. Maya pottery was not glazed, although it often had a fine finish produced by burnishing. Research at Aguateca indicated that Classic period warriors were primarily members of the elite. Name: Maya Gender: Unisex (Male and Female) Usage: Maya is a very popular first name. The Classic period also saw the intrusive intervention of the central Mexican city of Teotihuacan in Maya dynastic politics. Guillemín 1965, p. 9. [71] In the north of the Maya area, Coba was the most important capital. [128] By the Late Classic, when populations had grown enormously and hundreds of cities were connected in a complex web of political hierarchies, the wealthy segment of society multiplied. [337] Epigraphers Simon Martin and Nikolai Grube argue for a two-day shift from the standard GMT correlation. [162] Most warriors were not full-time, however, and were primarily farmers; the needs of their crops usually came before warfare. As in Petén, roof combs adorned principal structures. This is an example of intensive warfare carried out by an enemy in order to completely eliminate a Maya state, rather than subjugate it. [50] The Late Preclassic cultural florescence collapsed in the 1st century AD and many of the great Maya cities of the epoch were abandoned; the cause of this collapse is unknown. The earliest examples date to the Preclassic period. [15] Centuries later, during the 9th century AD, murals at Cacaxtla, another site in the central Mexican highlands, were painted in a Maya style. Abrams 1994, pp. At Copán, a pair of stelae were raised to mark the position of the setting sun at the equinoxes. [123] In the Late Classic, some cities established a long period of dominance over other large cities, such as the dominance of Caracol over Naranjo for half a century. The Mesoamerican language area shares a number of important features, including widespread loanwords, and use of a vigesimal number system. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 26. However, in practice one member of the council could act as a supreme ruler, while the other members served him as advisors. 764–65. [66] Copán reached the height of its cultural and artistic development during the rule of Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil, who ruled from 695 to 738. [230], The ceremonial centre of the Maya city was where the ruling elite lived, and where the administrative functions of the city were performed, together with religious ceremonies. [92] The Kʼicheʼ capital, Qʼumarkaj, fell to Alvarado in 1524. 289, 325, 441n26. [143] The titles of ah tzʼihb and ah chʼul hun are both related to scribes. It is more often used as a unisex (male and female) name. The few wooden artefacts that have survived include three-dimensional sculptures, and hieroglyphic panels. [243] In general, freestanding pyramids were shrines honouring powerful ancestors. The most noteworthy sites in Chiapas, other than Palenque and Yaxchilan, are Bonampak and Toniná. Rather, throughout its history, the Maya area contained a varying mix of political complexity that included both states and chiefdoms. [154], Warfare was prevalent in the Maya world. [74], Classic Maya social organization was based on the ritual authority of the ruler, rather than central control of trade and food distribution. As Maya society developed, and the elite became more powerful, Maya royalty developed their household shrines into the great pyramids that held the tombs of their ancestors. [245] E-Groups were raised across the central and southern Maya area for over a millennium; not all were properly aligned as observatories, and their function may have been symbolic. Sharer & Traxler 2006, p. 387. The reading order of text starts at the top left (block A1), continues to the second block in the double-column (B1), then drops down a row and starts again from the left half of the double column (A2), and thus continues in zig-zag fashion. 123–26. Foster 2002, p. 226. As an illustration, an Early Classic Maya merchant quarter has been identified at the distant metropolis of Teotihuacan, in central Mexico.

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