teatro barocco wikipedia

Circular or rectangular ponds or basins of water were the settings for fountains and statues. This was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burckhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition". The first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The main centres of American Baroque cultivation, that are still standing, are (in this order) Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. New kinds of armchairs appeared, including the fauteuil en confessionale or "Confessional armchair", which had padded cushions ions on either side of the back of the chair. It features dramatic contrasts of the massive white columns and gold decor. Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has largely remained in critical favor. The Baroque (UK: /bəˈrɒk/, US: /bəˈroʊk/; French: [baʁɔk]) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. The Baldequin of St. Peter is an example of the balance of opposites in Baroque art; the gigantic proportions of the piece, with the apparent lightness of the canopy; and the contrast between the solid twisted columns, bronze, gold and marble of the piece with the flowing draperies of the angels on the canopy. [33], The architects of the Spanish Baroque had an effect far beyond Spain; their work was highly influential in the churches built in the Spanish colonies in Latin America and the Philippines. His touring company was perhaps the most significant and important of the 17th century. Subsequently, it is easy to adapt the building to the taste of the time and place and add on new features and details. Façade of the Church of the Gesù from Rome (1584), Ceiling of the Church of the Gesù (1674–1679), Cartouches decorating courtyard of the Palazzo Spada from Rome, by Francesco Borromini (1632), Gallery with forced perspective, by Francesco Borromini, which creates the illusion that the corridor is much longer than it really is, in the Palazzo Spada (1632), The Chair of Saint Peter by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, in the St. Peter's Basilica from Rome (1657–1666), The Catholic Church in Spain, and particularly the Jesuits, were the driving force of Spanish Baroque architecture. Rubens' highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. The console table also made its first appearance; it was designed to be placed against a wall. Missionaries' accounts often repeat that Western art, especially music, had a hypnotic impact on foresters, and the images of saints were viewed as having great powers. Helen Gardner, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPalisca2001 (, Lope de Vega, 2010, Comedias: El Remedio en la Desdicha. It was a combination of western European Baroque with traditional Russian folk styles. Pigalle was commissioned by Frederick the Great to make statues for Frederick's own version of Versailles at Sanssouci in Potsdam, Germany. The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), the centerpiece of the château, with paintings by Le Brun, was constructed between 1678 and 1686. The altar is placed in the nave beneath the central dome, and surrounded by chapels, Light comes down from the dome above and from the surrounding chapels. The Fara Church from Poznań (Poland) (1651–1701), Remnant of Zwinger Palace in Dresden (1710–1728), Ceiling of Ottobeuren Abbey, in Bavaria (1711–1725), Library of the Clementinum, the Jesuit university from Prague (1722), Karlskirche (Vienna), by Fischer von Erlach (consecrated 1737), The Vierzehnheigen Basilica from Bavaria, by Balthasar Neumann (1743–1772), Sanssouci, in Potsdam, by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1745–1747), The East façade of the Würzburg Residence from Würzburg (Germany), France largely resisted the ornate Baroque style of Italy, Spain, Vienna and the rest of Europe. ... Milena Fornari, Il Teatro Farnese: decorazione e spazio barocco. Notable late French baroque sculptors included Étienne Maurice Falconet and Jean Baptiste Pigalle. Baroque gardens were built by Kings and princes in Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Poland, Italy and Russia until the mid-18th century, when they began to be remade into by the more natural English landscape garden. The most celebrated baroque decorative works of the High Baroque are the Chair of Saint Peter (1647–53) and the Baldachino of St. Peter (1623–34), both by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. [107], Tête-à-tête, an example of Second Empire furniture; 1850–1860; rosewood, ash, pine and walnut; 113 x 132.1 x 109.2 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Young Ladies Beside the Seine; by Gustave Courbet; 1856; oil on canvas; 174 x 206 cm; Petit Palais (Paris), The Birth of Venus; by Alexandre Cabanel; 1863; oil on canvas; 130 x 225 cm; Musée d'Orsay (Paris), The Palais Garnier from Paris, by Charles Garnier, Window with a pair of putti above it, in Wuppertal (Germany), Entrance of the House of scientists (Lviv, Ukraine), Staircase in the House of scientists from Lviv, The Cantacuzino Palace on Victory Avenue from Bucharest (Romania), by Ion D. Berindey (1898–1900)[108], Artistic style in Europe and colonies, c. 1600–1750, Example of very beautiful Baroque Revival details of city-houses from, Architecture: origins and characteristics, Baroque in the Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Americas, Baroque in the Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Asia, End of the style, condemnation and academic rediscovery. In an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic implied that the novelty of this opera was "du barocque," complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device. The Baroque period was a golden age for theatre in France and Spain; playwrights included Corneille, Racine and Moliere in France; and Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderón de la Barca Spain. Beaux-Arts buildings from the late 1890s and early 1900s are very good examples of Baroque Revival architecture. Some of the finest baroque sculptural craftsmanship was found in the gilded stucco altars of churches of the Spanish colonies of the New World, made by local craftsmen; examples include the Rosary Chapel of the Church of Santo Domingo in Oaxaca (Mexico), 1724–1731. The term "Baroque" may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, which was printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances, constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional device. It is worth mentioning among her works the auto sacramental El divino Narciso and the comedy Los empeños de una casa. Gassendi), arte (es. Following the death of Louis XIV, Louis XV added the more intimate Petit Trianon and the highly ornate theatre. [106] The ornaments used in 17th-18th century architecture are reused at Baroque Revival buildings, including: horns of plenty, festoons, baby angels, female or male mascarons, oval cartouches, acanthus leaves, classical columns, caryatids, pediments and other elements of Greco-Roman architecture. His realistic approach to the human figure, painted directly from life and dramatically spotlit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting. The second period is represented by Pedro Calderón de la Barca and fellow dramatists Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza, Álvaro Cubillo de Aragón, Jerónimo de Cáncer, Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla, Juan de Matos Fragoso, Antonio Coello y Ochoa, Agustín Moreto, and Francisco Bances Candamo. Some were in Rococo style, a distinct, more flamboyant and asymmetric style which emerged from the Baroque, then replaced it in Central Europe in the first half of the 18th century, until it was replaced in turn by classicism.[35]. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and Central Europe until the mid to late 18th century. Porto is the city of Baroque in Portugal. [101], Besides Versailles and Vaux-le-Vicomte, Celebrated baroque gardens still retaining much of their original appearance include the Royal Palace of Caserta near Naples; Nymphenburg Palace and Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl in Germany; Het Loo Palace in the Netherlands; the Belvedere Palace in Vienna; the Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso in Spain; and Peterhof Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia. [96] Lope's formulas begin with a verse that it unbefitting of the palace theatre foundation and the birth of new concepts that begun the careers of some play writers like Calderón de la Barca. [66] They avoided the even lighting of Renaissance painting and used strong contrasts of light and darkness on certain parts of the picture to direct attention to the central actions or figures. The Swiss-born art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) started the rehabilitation of the word Baroque in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass", an art antithetic to Renaissance art. He designed tapestries, carpets and theatre decoration as well as painting. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were carefully created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real. Palazzo Marino is a 16th-century palace located in Piazza della Scala, in the centre of Milan, Italy.It has been Milan's city hall since 9 September 1861. The itinerant companies (or "of the league"), who carried the theatre in improvised open-air stages by the regions that did not have fixed locals, required a viceregal license to work, whose price or pinción was destined to alms and works pious. It was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well.[1]. Due to the colonization of the Americas by European countries, the Baroque naturally moved to the New World, finding especially favorable ground in the regions dominated by Spain and Portugal, both countries being centralized and irreducibly Catholic monarchies, by extension subject to Rome and adherents of the Baroque Counter-reformist most typical. They enhanced this impression of movement by having the costumes of the personages blown by the wind, or moved by their own gestures. Atti dei convegni internazionali, Torino, 22 marzo 1991, Alba, 8-10 novembre 1991, Genua 1993; Claudio Magris, “Giovanni Getto”, in: Corriere della Sera 9. It borders on Piazza San Fedele, Piazza della Scala, Via Case Rotte and Via Tommaso Marino.. Concerto Barocco is a neoclassical ballet made for students at the School of American Ballet by George Balanchine, subsequently ballet master and co-founder of New York City Ballet, to Johann Sebastian Bach's Concerto in D minor for Two Violins, BWV 1043. [19], The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation. One of the main influence was the Louis XVI style, or French neoclassicism, which was preferred by the Empress Eugénie. [7], In the 16th century, the Medieval Latin word baroco moved beyond scholastic logic and came into use to characterise anything that seemed absurdly complex. In the 18th century sculptural altarpieces began to be replaced by paintings, developing notably the Baroque painting in the Americas. Vandiéres became the Marquis of Marigny, and was named Royal Director of buildings in 1754. The Cusco School of painting arose after the arrival of the Italian painter Bernardo Bitti in 1583, who introduced Mannerism in the Americas. The classical repertoire is crowded, dense, overlapping, loaded, in order to provoke shock effects. His work was extremely popular with Madame Pompadour, the Mistress of King Louis XV. [32] The Cathedral in Santiago de Compostela was modernized with a series of Baroque additions beginning at the end of the 17th century, starting with a highly ornate bell tower (1680), then flanked by two even taller and more ornate towers, called the Obradorio, added between 1738 and 1750 by Fernando de Casas Novoa. The palace was built for, and is named after, the Genoan trader and banker Tommaso Marino. 446–447, Molina Jiménez, María Belén (2008). The theatre was almost destroyed by an Allied air raid during World War II (1944). The set of churches and convents of Goa was declared a World Heritage Site in 1986. The most famous Neo-Baroque building in Paris are: the Pavillon de Flore (part of the Palais du Louvre), the Palais Garnier, the Petit Palais, and the Grand Palais. It was also very remarkable the Walled City of Manila (Intramuros). Its historical centre is part of UNESCO World Heritage List.[49]. In the Philippines, that was part of the Spanish Empire for a long time, a large number of Baroque constructions are preserved, including the Baroque Churches of the Philippines that four of these, and the Baroque and Neoclassical city of Vigan, are both UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Seit 2011 rekonstruiert Bienert nach dem Vorbild der Kupferstiche von J. F. Götz auch historische Darstellungs- bzw. In the Portuguese colonies of India (Goa, Daman and Diu) an architectural style of Baroque forms mixed with Hindu elements flourished, such as the Goa Cathedral and the Basilica of Bom Jesus of Goa, which houses the tomb of St. Francis Xavier. In the territories of the Spanish and Portuguese empires including the Iberian Peninsula it continued, together with new styles, until the first decade of the 1800s. Another feature of Baroque churches are the quadratura; trompe-l'œil paintings on the ceiling in stucco frames, either real or painted, crowded with paintings of saints and angels and connected by architectural details with the balustrades and consoles. Pietro da Cortona's compositions were the largest decorative frescoes executed in Rome since the work of Michelangelo at the Sistine Chapel. In decorative arts, Baroque Revival is usually known as the Napoleon III style or Second Empire style. Some of the houses is this style have cartouche-shaped oculus windows, usually with a mascaron at their top or bottom. Insgesamt wurde dieses Libretto von mehr als 30 Komponisten vertont. With more inhabitants and better economic resources, the north, particularly the areas of Porto and Braga,[46][47][48] witnessed an architectural renewal, visible in the large list of churches, convents and palaces built by the aristocracy. Another landmark of the Spanish Baroque is the chapel tower of the Palace of San Telmo in Seville by Leonardo de Figueroa.[33]. The French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms often associated with jewelry. [84] Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. Teatro Farnese is a Renaissance theatre in the Palazzo della Pilotta, Parma, Italy. [42], The major royal project of the period was the expansion of Palace of Versailles, begun in 1661 by Le Vau with decoration by the painter Charles Le Brun. In 1750 she sent her nephew, Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, on a two-year mission to study artistic and archeological developments in Italy. In their composition, they avoided the tranquil scenes of Renaissance paintings, and chose the moments of the greatest movement and drama. [28], In the mid to late 17th century the style reached its peak, later termed the High Baroque. Die Leitung hatte der Kastraten-Sänger Farinelli.Der Tenor Anton Raaff sang die Rolle des Amasi. The chapel, designed by de Cotte, was finished in 1710. [68], Early evidence of Italian Baroque ideas in painting occurred in Bologna, where Annibale Carracci, Agostino Carracci and Ludovico Carracci sought to return the visual arts to the ordered Classicism of the Renaissance. [99] For companies that worked stably in the capitals and major cities, one of their main sources of income was participation in the festivities of the Corpus Christi, which provided them with not only economic benefits, but also recognition and social prestige. They were usually constructed of walnut or oak, or sometimes of poirier stained to resemble ebony. [38] The palatial residence style was exemplified by the Wilanów Palace, constructed between 1677 and 1696. Other distinctive monuments of the Elizabethan Baroque are the bell tower of the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra and the Red Gate.[54]. Gardner, Helen, Fred S. Kleiner, and Christin J. Mamiya. Mansart completed the Grand Trianon in 1687. Dalla storia del testo alla storia dello spettacolo. Another work of Baroque palace architecture is the Zwinger in Dresden, the former orangerie of the palace of the Dukes of Saxony in the 18th century. It is a very practical building, allowing it to be built throughout the empire with minor adjustments, and prepared to be decorated later or when economic resources are available. Cochin became an important art critic; he denounced the petit style of Boucher, and called for a grand style with a new emphasis on antiquity and nobility in the academies of painting of architecture. Among his most important commissions were the frescoes he painted for the Palace of the Barberini family (1633–39), to glorify the reign of Pope Urban VIII. [3][4], Coordinates: 44°48′16.9″N 10°19′33.0″E / 44.804694°N 10.325833°E / 44.804694; 10.325833, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Teatro_Farnese&oldid=962234746, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 June 2020, at 21:34. It highlighted the work of Luis de Riaño, disciple of the Italian Angelino Medoro, author of the murals of the Church of San Pedro of Andahuaylillas. Similarly, the demand for civil works, mainly portraits of the aristocratic classes and the ecclesiastical hierarchy, grew. El teatro musical de Calderón de la Barca: Análisis textual. In Poland, the Italian-inspired Polish Baroque lasted from the early 17th to the mid-18th century and emphasised richness of detail and colour. Louis XIV himself performed in public in several ballets. Poussin and La Tour adopted a "classical" Baroque style with less focus on emotion and greater attention to the line of the figures in the painting than to colour. He said that in the first movement of Concerto Barocco the two ballerinas personify the violins, and that, "If the dance designer sees in the development of classical dancing a counterpart in the development of music, and has studied them both, he will derive continual inspiration from great scores. 180. [40] However, the most celebrated work of Polish Baroque is the Fara Church in Poznań, with details by Pompeo Ferrari. One of the best examples of a rococo church is the Basilika Vierzehnheiligen, or Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, a pilgrimage church located near the town of Bad Staffelstein near Bamberg, in Bavaria, southern Germany. The baroque was a period of musical experimentation and innovation. The sense of movement is given not by the decoration, but by the walls themselves, which undulate and by concave and convex elements, including an oval tower and balcony inserted into a concave traverse. The best known German playwright was Andreas Gryphius, who used the Jesuit model of the Dutch Joost van den Vondel and Pierre Corneille. Baroque painters worked deliberately to set themselves apart from the painters of the Renaissance and the Mannerism period after it. Construction took place between 1745 and 1754, and the interior was decorated with frescoes and with stuccowork in the tradition of the Wessobrunner School. Baroque architecture in Portugal enjoys a special situation and different timeline from the rest of Europe. [101], Garden of Vaux-le-Vicomte (France) seen from the Chateau (1656–1661), View of the garden facade of Palace of Versailles in 1680s, Plan of the Tuileries Garden (France), designed by André Le Nôtre (about 1671), Restored parterres of the Belvedere Palace (Vienna, Austria) today, The following are characteristics that Rococo has and Baroque has not:[clarification needed], Madame de Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV, contributed to the decline of the baroque and rococo style. Apollo and Daphne; by Gian Lorenzo Bernini; 1622–1625; marble; height: 2.43 m; Galleria Borghese, Caryatides on the Pavillon de l'Horloge (Louvre Palace), by Jacques Sarazin, 1639–1640, Saint Veronica; by Francesco Mochi; 1629–1639; Carrara marble; height: 5 m; St. Peter's Basilica (Vatican City), Bust of Andries de Graeff; by Artus Quellinus the Elder; 1661; marble; height: 76 cm, width: 76 cm, thickness: 36 cm; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), The Fountain of Saturn; by François Girardon; 1672–1677; gilded lead; Palace of Versailles (France), The King's Fame Riding Pegasus; by Antoine Coysevox; 1701–1702; Carrara marble; height: 3.15 m, width: 2.91 m, depth: 1.28 m; Louvre, The Death of Adonis; by Giuseppe Mazzuoli; 1710s; marble; height: 193 cm; Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg, Russia), Mercury putting on his running shoes; by Jean-Baptiste Pigalle; 1753; lead; 187 × 108 × 106 cm; Louvre, The main motifs used are: horns of plenty, festoons, baby angels, lion heads holding a metal ring in their mouths, female faces surrounded by garlands, oval cartouches, acanthus leaves, classical columns, caryatids, pediments and other elements of Classical architecture sculpted on some parts of pieces of furniture,[76] baskets with fruits or flowers, shells, armour and trophies, heads of Apollo or Bacchus, and C-shaped volutes. He established a new dramatic formula that broke the three Aristotle unities of the Italian school of poetry (action, time and place) and a fourth unity of Aristotle which is about style, mixing of tragic and comic elements showing different types of verses and stanzas upon what is represented. In fact, the first Portuguese Baroque does not lack in building because "plain style" is easy to be transformed, by means of decoration (painting, tiling, etc. [33] This highly ornamental Baroque style was very influential in many churches and cathedrals built by the Spanish in the Americas. [89] The Hispanic Baroque theatre aimed for a public content with an ideal reality that manifested fundamental three sentiments: Catholic religion, monarchist and national pride and honour originating from the chivalric, knightly world. Massimo Colella, Il Barocco sabaudo tra mecenatismo e retorica. The idea of creating this grand theater came from the Duke of Parma and Piacenza Ranuccio I Farnese. "[15], Common use of the term for the music of the period began only in 1919, by Curt Sachs,[83] and it was not until 1940 that it was first used in English in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer.[82]. The interiors of Baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, and focused around the altar, usually placed under the dome. The poetic text interweaved with Medias and resources originating from architecture, music and painting freeing the deception that is in the Lopesian comedy was made up from the lack of scenery and engaging the dialogue of action.[98]. Unlike the tranquil faces of Renaissance paintings, the faces in Baroque paintings clearly expressed their emotions. Their works include the buildings on the city's main square, the Plaza Mayor of Salamanca (1729). It was rebuilt and reopened in 1962. Another key factor is the existence of the Jesuitical architecture, also called "plain style" (Estilo Chão or Estilo Plano)[45] which like the name evokes, is plainer and appears somewhat austere. 2005. The cartouche was another characteristic feature of Baroque decoration. [67] Another essential element of baroque painting was allegory; every painting told a story and had a message, often encrypted in symbols and allegorical characters, which an educated viewer was expected to know and read. One important domain of Baroque painting was Quadratura, or paintings in trompe-l'oeil, which literally "fooled the eye". He advised the students to work from classical models, rather than from nature. In Prussia, Frederic II of Prussia was inspired the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, and used it as the model for his summer residence, Sanssouci, in Potsdam, designed for him by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1745–1747). By the mid-18th century most of the Baroque gardens were partially or entirely transformed into variations of the English landscape garden. Despite his accommodation to Lope de Vega's new comedy, his "marked secularism", his discretion and restraint, and a keen capacity for "psychological penetration" as distinctive features of Alarcón against his Spanish contemporaries have been noted. [84], Several new instruments, including the piano, were introduced during this period. In Peru, the constructions mostly developed in the cities of Lima, Cusco, Arequipa and Trujillo since 1650 show original characteristics that are advanced even to the European Baroque, as in the use of cushioned walls and solomonic columns (Church of la Compañía de Jesús, Cusco; Basilica and Convent of San Francisco, Lima). His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasised movement, colour, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation.

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