versailles, louis xiv

The king’s first true love was Mazarin’s niece, Marie Mancini, but both the queen and the cardinal frowned upon their relationship. The Gardens of Versailles include a promenade that faces east to west, following the path of the sun in honor of the Sun King. In 1701, King Louis XIV moved his bedchamber to the centermost point of the royal apartments, making his room the focal point of the palace. By the 1680s, however, the devoutly Catholic Louis XIV believed his faith should be the sole religion of his country. Louis-Philippe commissioned the creation of a museum at Versailles to unite the people of France. Europe’s grandest palace became a center of political power and a symbol of the king’s dominance and wealth. The French central government remained in Versailles until the beginning of the French Revolution, when Marie-Antoinette and King Louis XVI were forced from the estate. Louis likes the finer things in life, and liked to use money to boast about what he could achieve - hence the building of Versailles. Louis and Claudine's relationship remains neutral. Today, more than 10 million people visit the Palace of Versailles annually. Marie Louise (niece) Known as the “Sun King,” Louis XIV centralized power in the monarchy and reigned over a period of unprecedented prosperity in which France became the dominant power in Europe and a leader in the arts and sciences. Let’s start with the fact that the attitude toward hygiene was different back then from what we have now. Marie-Antoinette altered the appearance of the queen’s apartments several times during her reign. British explorer, diplomat and accomplished archaeologist Gertrude Bell has been described as "the female Lawrence of Arabia." Charlotte Parthenay † (goddaughter). Allowing for more privacy and comfort, the King’s and Queen’s Private Apartments were truncated versions of the original royal apartments, featuring low ceilings and undecorated walls. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. And he is adamant that he will not return to Paris. He was named Louis Dieudonné (Louis the God-given) and bore the traditional title of French heirs apparent: Dauphin. Louis and Bontemps A network of paths open to pavilions, fountains, statues, and an orangery. (Painting: Charles Beaubrun [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons). King Louis XIV, the Sun King, spent nearly 50 years expanding the palace, and in1682, he moved both the royal residence and French seat of government to Versailles. Henry VIII was crowned King of England in 1509. The first queen to reside in these apartments was Maria Theresa, wife of King Louis XIV, but she died in 1683 soon after arriving in Versailles. However, the temperamental French climate made the terrace impractical, so it was swiftly replaced by the enclosed Hall of Mirrors. Henriette of England † (cousin, sister-in-law) In addition to the royal court, the 700-room palace housed the nobility that Louis XIV had brought into his sphere as well as the thousands of staff needed for upkeep. Louis XVI ascended to the throne after the death of his grandfather in 1774, though the new king had little interest in governance. Marie-Thérèse gave birth to six of the king’s children, but only one, Louis, survived past the age of 5. Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi Soleil), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. The royal family was forcibly removed from the palace at the onset of the French Revolution, though subsequent political leaders, including Napoleon and the Bourbon kings, spent time in the palace before it was transformed into a public museum. Louis de Bourbon Here are some surprising facts. The marriage between the two first cousins ensured ratification of the peace treaty that Mazarin had sought to establish with Hapsburg Spain. Various other women and girls, Louis and Montespan In 1837, the estate was refurbished and inaugurated as a museum. Common fact: Versailles during the reign of Louis XIV was a smelly place. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631. The Grand and Small Stables, named for purpose rather than size, are visible on the left and right sides of this illustration. After years of persecuting Protestants and constricting their rights, the Catholic king revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 through his issuance of the Edict of Fontainebleau, which ordered the destruction of Protestant churches, the closure of Protestant schools, and the forced baptism and education of children into the Catholic faith. In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte was coronated as the first emperor of France, and he immediately began the process of moving the government back to Versailles. They dismantled many of the galleries established by Louis-Philippe, rebuilding the royal apartments in their place, and used historical records to design and decorate the estate in the styles of the monarchs who had once resided there. Versailles During and After the French Revolution (1789 -1870). The final structure of the Palace of Versailles commissioned by Louis XIV was the Royal Chapel. Louis and Philippe On his order, the prince’s apartments were destroyed, replaced by portrait galleries. Louis and William The Hall of Mirrors represents the enormous wealth of the French monarchy, as mirrors were among the most expensive belongings during the 17th century. The famous painting “The Coronation of Napoleon,” which hangs in the Louvre, inspired the Coronation Room. In 1789, Marie-Antoinette was in the Petite Trianon when she learned of the mob storming Versailles. He is the King of France and Navarre, the son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria, the husband of Marie-Thérèse of Spain and the elder brother of Philippe. Louis XIV, however, had a healthy libido and fathered more than a dozen illegitimate children with a number of mistresses. The king’s grandfather Henry IV granted French Protestants, known as Huguenots, political and religious freedoms when he issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict led 200,000 or more Huguenots to flee France in search of religious freedom elsewhere in Europe or in the American colonies. The great stables housed the horses used by the king, the royal family, and the military, while the small stables housed coach horses and the coaches themselves. Louis and Fabien Élisabeth of France † (aunt) Louis and Leopold The final room to be added to these apartments, the Hercules Room, served as a religious chapel until 1710, when the Royal Chapel was added. Few musicians remain as beloved and revered as the late Bob Marley, whose music continues to inspire and influence music, fashion, politics and culture around the world. Renovations in the 20th century by Pierre de Nolhac and Gerald Van der Kemp sought to revive the estate. With the new king too young to rule over his 19 million subjects, his mother, Anne, served as regent and appointed Louis XIV’s godfather, Italian-born Cardinal Jules Mazarin, as chief minister. He wishes he could have the same, but being King is very important to him. Continued Construction and Governance in Versailles. Napoleon never spent much time at Versailles, but much of the museum is dedicated to Napoleonic art, owing to Louis-Philippe’s nostalgia for the Napoleonic era. Because the expansive gardens could be overwhelming, Louis XIV would often lead tours of the area, showing courtiers and friends where to stop and what to admire. Louis and Liselotte He did, however, make the concession of appointing her head of the council. Known as commonly as Louis the Beloved, the king was a strong proponent of Enlightenment ideas, including science and the arts. The Grand Trianon is only a single story to emphasize the connection with the gardens. (After the death of Louis XIV, history repeated itself as his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV, succeeded him.). From this point forward, all gatherings of nobility, courtiers, and government officials happened under the watchful eye of the Sun King in his Palace of Versailles. It is considered to be the most important addition by Louis-Philippe to the Palace of Versailles. The Louisiana Territory became American property after the United States purchased it in 1803, and the state of Louisiana joined the union in 1812. Langston Hughes was born today in 1902. Marie-Antoinette’s Hamlet featured Norman-style cottages, including one for her exclusive use. From 1638 to 1715, King Louis XIV—the Sun King—reigned over France with absolute power. Versailles remained the center of government until the French Revolution. History's Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine,, Louis XIV de Bourbon, King of France and Navarre. The apartments were later dramatically altered first by King Louis XIV, who annexed several rooms in the palace to create his royal bedchamber, and later by Marie-Antoinette. He does whatever needed to be done to make his country great. King Louis XIV moved his bedchamber, making it the focal point of the palace both inside and out. At the time of his birth, his parents had been married for 23 years. The King’s State Apartments were rooms used for ceremonial purposes and social gatherings. Louis XIV was 15 years old at the time of his coronation in 1654, but he did not wield absolute power over France until seven years later when Mazarin died. The Petite Trianon, gifted to Marie-Antoinette by Louis XVI. By 1634, the simple lodge had been replaced by a more regal stone and brick chateau, though it still maintained its purpose as a hunting lodge until King Louis XIV took the throne. Most of the furniture was either stolen or sold at auction, though many of the paintings were preserved and brought to the Louvre. Louis XIII died in 1643, leaving the monarchy in the hands of the four-year-old Louis XIV. Louis XIV was ultimately directed into a marriage that was a political, rather than a romantic, union by wedding the daughter of Spain’s King Philip IV, Marie-Thérèse, in 1660. Inside the walls of the opulent Palace of Versailles, France’s King Louis XIV died of gangrene on September 1, 1715, just four days short of his 77th birthday. A portrait gallery made from the demolition of some of the royal apartments, the Gallery of Great Battles features 30 paintings that depict centuries of military success in France, beginning with Clovis and ending with Napoleon. The Congress Chamber was constructed to house the new National Assembly and Congress, a reminder of the governmental power once held at Versailles. Louis and Marie-Thérèse King Louis XIV, pictured here arriving at Versailles, commissioned most of the expansion on Versailles during his 72-year reign. Hot water was considered a “substance” provoking the spreading of various diseases. Biography of King Louis XIV, France’s Sun King, Louvre Museum: History and Most Important Masterpieces, Biography of Louis XV, Beloved King of France, A History of the Women's March on Versailles, Biography of Marie Antoinette, Queen Executed in the French Revolution, The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017, Biography of King Louis XVI, Deposed in the French Revolution, Biography of Marie-Antoinette, French Queen Consort, The French Revolution, Its Outcome, and Legacy, The Many Roles of Women in the French Revolution, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, B.S., Political Science, Boise State University. The only exception is the Hall of Plenty, where visitors could find refreshments. "View of the Chateau of Versailles seen from the Place d’armes in 1722” by Pierre-Denis Martin. Mistress Louise de La Vallière bore five of the king’s children, only two of which survived infancy, while her rival Madame de Montespan, who eventually became the king’s chief mistress, gave birth to seven of the monarch’s children. Both Marie-Antoinette and King Louis XVI were removed from Versailles and guillotined in the subsequent years. Here are seven facts about the influential poet, novelist and playwright who captured the African American experience. The Grand Trianon was built as a summer residence where the royal family could take refuge from the ever-expanding court at Versailles. House of Habsburg Here are seven facts about her fascinating life and complex legacy. Louis XIV built the extravagant Palace of Versailles. Though the main function of the contemporary Palace of Versailles is as a museum, it also plays host to important political and social events throughout the year, including presidential addresses, state dinners, and concerts. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Below are the elements of the Palace of Versailles that were added during the reign of King Louis XIV. After the civil war known as the Fronde forced a young Louis XIV to flee his palace in Paris, the monarch took a dislike to the capital city. Over the centuries, much of the art and furniture that was stolen or auctioned off has been returned to the palace. Louis and Maintenon King Louis XIV’s 72-year reign, the longest of any European monarch, afforded him the ability to spend more than 50 years adding to and renovating the chateau at Versailles, where he died at the age of 76. Instead he will turn his father’s hunting lodge into a palace; a temple to the gods, with himself as the sole authority in France. Reflecting that belief, Louis XIV believed any disobedience to his edicts to be sinful, and he adopted the sun as his emblem since France revolved around him as the planets revolved around the sun. A History of the Palace of Versailles, Jewel of the Sun King. Learn about one of science's most intriguing geniuses. The Royal Opera is the largest surviving court opera house. Louis and Louise During his rule, France was the most powerful country in Europe. Louis has the crazy idea that he, as king, has ultimate power. When he came of age, Louis began work on the family hunting lodge, ordered the addition of kitchens, stables, gardens, and residential apartments. The Crusades Rooms were created with the sole intention of appeasing the nobility of France. Princess Palatine (sister-in-law) In 1682, Louis XIV officially moved his court to the lavish palace at Versailles, 13 miles outside of Paris. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe. It took more than two decades for King Louis XIII and his wife, Anne, to have Louis XIV as their first child. By removing government from Paris, Louis XIV solidified his omnipotent power as a monarch. As a skilled medic, Louis admired said skills that she had for being a woman in that time period. He is envious of this brother, Philippe's, freedom. Mckenzie Perkins is a writer and researcher specializing in southeast Asian religion and culture, education, and college life. Biblical illustrations and statues line the walls, drawing the worshipers’ eyes toward the altar, which features a relief depicting the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. After the civil war known as the Fronde forced a young Louis XIV to flee his palace in Paris, the monarch took a dislike to the capital city. Fabien Marchal was Louis XIV's Chief of Police and functions as the King's eyes and ears both within and outside the palace. Credited as one of the great minds of the Scientific Revolution, here are a few interesting facts about the father of modern science. Patronage to Versailles by courtiers dropped off quickly, fueling the flames of the budding revolution. To learn more about the life of the "Sun King," check out these seven surprising facts about the longest-reigning monarch in French history.

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